Cost of Corrosion - Pulp & Paper
The $165 billion pulp, paper and allied product industry supplies the United States with approximately 300 kg of paper per person per year. More than 300 pulp mills and more than 550 paper mills support its production. The total annual direct cost of corrosion is estimated at $6.0 billion, with the majority of this cost in the paper and paperboard-making industry, and calculated as a fraction of the maintenance costs. No information was found to estimate the corrosion costs related to the loss of capital.
Paper production consists of a series of processes and can be roughly divided according to the five major manufacturing steps: pulp production, pulp processing and chemical recovery, pulp bleaching, stock preparation, and paper manufacturing. Each manufacturing step has its own corrosion problems related to the size and quality of the wood fibers, the amount of and temperature of the process water, the concentration of the treatment chemicals, and the materials used for machinery construction. Examples of corrosion affecting production are (1) corrosion products polluting the paper and (2) corrosion of rolls scarring the sheets of paper. Corrosion of components may also result in fractures or leaks in the machines, causing production loss and safety hazards.